The Ten Commandments
The Bible begins with the creation. The day Adam was created he was given six moral ethical rules of law and the prohibition of eating from the Tree of Knowledge. Noah and his decedents from whom all mankind descends were further commanded not to eat parts of an animal or fowl that was severed even after being killed but before it's body ceased all discernable movement. This brings to a total of Seven Moral Rules for mankind. The prohibition against idol worship is also considered a moral law since idols were worshiped for sensuous pleasures unrestricted by morals or ethics.
I will now enumerate the seven rules in digest form, and after explaining the difference between them and the Ten Commandments I will return to these seven rules in order to add more details.
The Seven Moral Rules in digest form:
1. Idol worship and erecting an idol are forbidden. Belief in one non-physical GD is mandatory.
2. It is forbidden to (heaven forbid) curse GD our creator.
3. It is forbidden to take the life of a human or destroy a human embryo at any stage, because life begins at inception.
4. Incest is forbidden.
5. Theft is forbidden.
6. It is forbidden to eat parts of an animal or fowl that was severed even after being killed but before it's body ceased all discernable movement.
7. It is mandatory to organize courts of laws to judge people fairly and honestly and enforce the law. These courts must also enforce the Seven Moral Laws.
The first two commandments of the Ten Commandments were given at Mt. Sinai in a voice emanating from GD our creator, being translated simultaneously into seventy languages and heard over the entire world.
The Ten Commandments in digest form.
1. Belief in one non-physical GD who is our creator is mandatory.
2. Idol worship and erecting an idol are forbidden.
3. It is forbidden to swear falsely or in vain using the name of GD.
4. The seventh day of the week shall be a day of rest.
5. Respect and fear your parents.
6. It is forbidden to take the life of a human or destroy a human embryo at any stage, because life begins at inception.
7. Incest is forbidden.
8. Theft is forbidden.
9. It is forbidden to falsely testify in court.
10. It is forbidden to covet your neighbors wife or his possessions with the intention of obtaining them without his total willing consent.
The Ten Commandments was given to the Hebrews or Jews who left Egypt in conjunction with other commandments which total 613 commandments. These commandments include all the Seven Moral Rules. There are some differences in the details of some of these rules between what applies to a jew and what applies to a non-jew.
When comparing the Ten Commandments to the Seven Moral Rules one may wonder why wasn't respect for parents included, or the prohibition to covet a neighbors wife or possession included.
The answer is, that some of the Ten-Commandments are included in the Seven Moral Rules. Furthermore, it is a general rule in observing laws that if ones character is bad then he will not obey the rules. Therefore, there are many other rules that are prerequisites to the Seven Moral Rules, and there are many other rules that if broken will lead to breaking the Seven Moral Rules. If one swears falsely in the name of GD in court this is the same as testifying falsely and is considered a violation of the commandment to establish courts of justice, since with his false testimony he is attempting to pervert justice. If one works seven days a week and has no day off to contemplate and plan his life he will end up violating at least some of the seven rules. If one does not respect his parents he will not respect authority or the Seven Moral Rules. If one pressures his neighbor against his will to give him his wife or sell him his jewelry, he is guilty of incest and theft, this is a violation of rules numbers 4 and 5.
The 613 commandments were known to Adam the first man since he was gifted with prophesy. They were observed by great men of great stature. This was the method that one was able to achieve spiritual purity and study the Kabbalah that explains the purpose of GD creating our world, what GD expects of us, and the creation's spiritual physical relationships. The primary goal for the giving of the Ten Commandments and the remaining 613 commandments at Mt. Sinai was to make these 613 commandments mandatory for the jews. Therefore, a jew who fulfills these commandments and a non-jew who fulfills the Seven Moral Rules are both considered Torah observant and both have a share in the world to come.
I will now proceed to explain the Seven Moral Rules in more detail.
The Bible allows a non-jew to join the jewish nation to attain the status of a jew by being bound to the 613 Commandments and its related Rabbinical laws. This spiritual elevation is comprehended in our world and much more so in heaven and in the world to come. This process is called a transformation process (gairus).